APHRODITE criteria: Addressing male Patients with Hypogonadism and/or infeRtility Owing to altereD Idiopathic TEsticular function

Male infertility is a disease that deserves greater clinical attention and research.

Male infertility is a disease affecting the male reproductive system, caused primarily by congenital and genetic conditions, anatomical, endocrine, functional or immunological abnormalities, genital tract infections, cancer and its related treatments, and sexual disorders incompatible with intercourse. However, in many cases, the cause remains unknown, and male infertility is termed ‘idiopathic’. Inadequate lifestyle, psychological factors, exposure to environmental stressors and pollutants, and advanced paternal age are critical factors acting alone or exacerbating the impact of known and unknown causative factors.

Recognizing the need for enhanced assessment and management of male infertility, especially in real-world scenarios, has been a long-standing concern among clinicians.

Historically, much of the focus in addressing infertility has centered on female-related issues. Yet, as our understanding of spermatogenesis has advanced, there is increasing recognition of the potential benefits of using hormonal treatment to manage specific cases of male infertility. Therefore, it is now imperative for clinicians to conduct thorough investigations and provide accurate diagnoses for the underlying causes of male subfertility/infertility. This allows for a more precise prognosis and effective communication with the patient.

The recent introduction of the APHRODITE criteria for managing male infertility represents a significant step forward. These criteria aim to enhance the diagnosis, classification, and overall management of infertile men.